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Equal Pay Day is one of many reminders that pay discrimination remains an important source of gender inequality—one that threatens women’s independence and financial security throughout their entire working lives and into retirement. Women continue to make less than 80 cents for every dollar men make, a disparity that cannot be accounted for by labor force commitment, voluntary job choices, or time off to care for children. Indeed, virtually every economist who has crunched the numbers, regardless of his or her ideological slant or background, has concluded that the gender wage gap is at least partially created by pay discrimination—which means paying women less to do the same job simply because they are women.