Journal of International Business and Law


Monica Cossu


This article begins by distinguishing between financial intermediaries and institutional investors, and providing a taxonomy of the different types of active behaviours starting with the formal, more traditional and widely-known typologies of activism, then redirecting focus to other informal forms of activism, disentangling the "collective" from the "individual" ones. References will be made to American, British, French, German, Italian and Spanish contexts. Some limited remarks will be devoted to identifying the specifics aims and similarities of other international jurisdictions (for example to Icelandic one for its slate voting system for the appointment of directors, which is very similar to the Italian system).

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